Air jet yarn

A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.

The word "loom" is derived from the Old English "geloma" formed from ge-(perfective prefix) and " loma ", a root of unknown origin; this meant utensil or tool or machine of any kind. In 1404 it was used to mean a machine to enable weaving thread into cloth. [1] By 1838 it had gained the meaning of a machine for interlacing thread.

Weaving is done by intersecting the longitudinal threads, the warp , i.e. "that which is thrown across", [2] with the transverse threads, the weft , i.e. "that which is woven".

Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn. Long continuous strands may only require additional twisting to make them into yarns. Sometimes they are put through an additional process called texturing.

The characteristics of spun yarn depend, in part, on the amount of twist given to the fibers during spinning. A fairly high degree of twist produces strong yarn; a low twist produces softer, more lustrous yarn; and a very tight twist produces crepe yarn. Yarns are also classified by their number of parts. A single yarn is made from a group of filament or staple fibers twisted together. Ply yarns are made by twisting two or more single yarns. Cord yarns are made by twisting together two or more ply yarns.

Almost eight billion pounds (3.6 billion kg) of spun yarn was produced in the United States during 1995, with 40% being produced in North Carolina alone. Over 50% of spun yarn is made from cotton. Textured, crimped, or bulked yarn comprised one half of the total spun. Textured yarn has higher volume due to physical, chemical, or heat treatments. Crimped yarn is made of thermoplastic fibers of deformed shape. Bulked yarn is formed from fibers that are inherently bulky and cannot be closely packed.

All of the fantastic fiber you get from animals on your homestead will become beautiful yarns, batting and stuffing. At first, when you look at the wool fleece, or hair right off the animal you may wonder how that dirty, messy bundle of wool/hair will ever become yarn, but it will. First things first:

We’ll concentrate on fleece for this piece, because that is the most common fiber turned into yarn, and the fiber that produces the most per shearing. You will have to learn the right ways to shear the animal you are using, but once you have the fleece in front of you, it is time to make it ready for spinning.

Skirting :  Skirting is the term used for the process of getting rid of the edges of the fleece that have the most dirt, waste material, and which are usually ragged from cutting. Your fleece will normally be in one solid piece (at least once you have practiced and gotten the hang of shearing). Lay it flat on a table, and cut off one to two inches all around the fleece.